摘譯自2008年6月19日ENS加拿大,蒙特婁報導;鄭佳宜編譯;莫聞審校

紐約甘迺迪國際機場。圖片來源:ENS聯合國國際民航組織(ICAO)建置了一個新網站,讓乘客可以計算飛行旅程的碳足跡。碳足跡是評估人類活動對環境影響的計量方式,以溫室氣體(二氧化碳濃度為單位)排放來定量。

例如,一位乘客從紐約甘迺迪國際機場搭乘經濟艙前往華盛頓特區,兩地相距212英哩之遙,飛行過程大約產生0.08公噸二氧化碳──造成氣候變遷的最主要溫室氣體。相比之下,同一位乘客從甘迺迪機場飛行2,466英哩到洛杉磯,則產生約0.36公噸二氧化碳。

當乘客得知一趟飛行所製造的二氧化碳量,便可以藉由支持再生能源或種植樹木,達到碳補償。碳補償交易價格範圍甚廣,從每公噸4美元到99美元都有,可在EcoBusinessLinks.com找到各種價格價位的碳補償方式(這個網頁並不隸屬於ICAO)。

碳計算器僅使用公開取得的可靠資訊來作二氧化碳排放量的計算,它考量了飛機機型、旅程資料、乘客人數以及貨運量。

聯合國國際民航組織議會主席岡薩雷斯(Roberto Kobeh Gonzalez)說,碳計算器有益於個人和組織,而且會隨著越來越多技術資訊和營運資訊的取得,而改良為更方便使用的工具。

岡薩雷斯表示:「碳計算器是回應許多旅客的需求。這些旅客希望尋求一個可靠而權威的航班碳足跡估計方式,讓他們得以根據飛行中的二氧化碳排放量來評估對環境變遷的影響,並以此選擇最適合的碳補償計畫,以盡應負的責任。」

聯合國國際民航組織的蒙特婁總部在6月18日介紹碳計算器,以支持聯合國的「氣候平衡計畫」。此計劃號召所有聯合國系統,共同決定他們的二氧化碳排放總量。

聯合國世界觀光組織(World Tourism Organization)協會對這新的碳計算器表示支持。國際航空運輸協會(IATA)亦推薦航空公司會員將碳計量器用於他們的碳補償計畫,讓讓飛行旅程的碳足跡計算更為一致。

ICAO也在18、19兩日於蒙特婁舉辦首次的「航空業和碳市場論壇」,會議中大量探討了碳排放、碳交易和碳補償的相關訊息,超過200位參與者在論壇中討論全球碳市場的各種運行方式。

碳市場是透過二氧化碳的價格化,以市場機制控制溫室氣體排放,進而減緩氣候變遷;企業須透過購買碳許可、碳權和排放配額以取得排放額度。

國際民航組織線上碳計量器,請點選此處

Track Your Flight Carbon Footprint Anywhere in the World
MONTREAL, Canada, June 19, 2008 (ENS)

The United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO, has unveiled a carbon calculation tool on its website that allows travelers to estimate the carbon footprint for any flight they take. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide.

For instance, one passenger, flying economy class from New York's John F. Kennedy International airport to Washington, DC, a distance of 212 miles, generates about 0.08 tons of carbon dioxide, the most abundant greenhouse gas responsible for climate change. By contrast, the same passenger, flying economy class from JFK International airport to Los Angeles, a distance of 2,466 miles, generates about 0.36 tons of carbon dioxide.

Once a traveler knows how much carbon dioxide is produced for a given flight, he or she can purchase offsets, such as funding renewable energy or planting trees. Prices for offsets vary widely depending on the projects funded from about $4 per metric ton to $99 per metric ton. Compare offset prices at websites such as EcoBusinessLinks.com, which is not affiliated with ICAO.

The carbon calculator uses only publicly available and verifiable information to make its calculations about the amount of carbon dioxide emissions from a flight. It takes into account such variables as aircraft type, route data, passenger load and the amount of cargo.

Roberto Kobeh Gonzalez, president of the ICAO Council, said the calculator should benefit both individuals and organizations and will improve as a tool as more technical and operational information becomes available.

"The carbon calculator responds to the wish of many travellers for a reliable and authoritative method to estimate the carbon footprint of a flight, so they can choose the program best suited to offset the impact of their trips on climate change according to the amount of carbon dioxide they are responsible for," Kobeh said.

It was introduced Wednesday by the Montreal-based ICAO as part of efforts to support the UN Climate Neutral Initiative, which calls for all parts of the UN system to determine their total carbon emissions.
The new carbon calculator is being backed by the UN World Tourism Organization.

The International Air Transport Association is also recommending the methodology used in the carbon calculator to its member airlines for use in their carbon-offsetting programs, in part to achieve a more consistent approach to estimating the carbon footprint of flights.

Increasing information in the area of carbon, emissions trading and offsets is one of the objectives of ICAO's first ever "Aviation and Carbon Markets Workshop" that was held yesterday and today in Montreal. More than 200 participants of the forum met to explore opportunities for a global aviation carbon market.
Carbon markets are designed to combat climate change by putting a price on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Companies can trade the right to emit these gases through permits, credits, or allowances.

ICAO's carbon calculator is online, click here.

全文及圖片詳見:ENS

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